CSE Department Video Tutorial

Booth Algorthim
Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in two's complement notation. The algorithm was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950 while doing research on crystallography at Birkbeck College in Bloomsbury, London. Booth used desk calculators that were faster at shifting than adding and created the algorithm to increase their speed. Booth's algorithm is of interest in the study of computer architecture.

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Expert System
Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented mainly as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code.


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Paging Concept
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory. In this scheme, the operating system retrieves data from secondary storage in same-size blocks called pages.

Paging is an important part of virtual memory implementations in modern operating systems, using secondary storage to let programs exceed the size of available physical memory.For simplicity, main memory is called "RAM" (an acronym of "random-access memory") and secondary storage is called "disk" (a shorthand for "hard disk drive"), but the concepts do not depend on whether these terms apply literally to a specific computer system.


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Multi Core Architecture
Multicore refers to an architecture in which a single physical processor incorporates the core logic of more than one processor. A single integrated circuit is used to package or hold these processors. These single integrated circuits are known as a die.

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (called "cores"), which are units that read and execute program instructions.[1] The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch), but the single processor can run multiple instructions on separate cores at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing.[2] Manufacturers typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or onto multiple dies in a single chip package.


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OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing systemwithout regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer.


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Static members in C++
We can define class members static using static keyword. When we declare a member of a class as static it means no matter how many objects of the class are created, there is only one copy of the static member.

A static member is shared by all objects of the class. All static data is initialized to zero when the first object is created, if no other initialization is present. We can't put it in the class definition but it can be initialized outside the class as done in the following example by redeclaring the static variable, using the scope resolution operator :: to identify which class it belongs to.


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Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)
A Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite accepter (DFA) and deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.

They are four type of method to construct DFA :

  • String Ending with type.
  • String Stratirg with type.
  • Sub string type.
  • Divisibility type.

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REST - Representational State Transfer
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. (It is sometimes spelled "REST".) It relies on a stateless, client-server, cacheable communications protocol and in virtually all cases, the HTTP protocol is used.

REST is an architecture style for designing networked applications. The idea is that, rather than using complex mechanisms such as CORBA, RPC or SOAP to connect between machines, simple HTTP is used to make calls between machines. In many ways, the World Wide Web itself, based on HTTP, can be viewed as a REST-based architecture. RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data (create and/or update), read data (e.g., make queries), and delete data. Thus, REST uses HTTP for all four CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operations.


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super keyword in java
The super keyword in java is a reference variable that is used to refer immediate parent class object.

Whenever you create the instance of subclass, an instance of parent class is created implicitly i.e. referred by super reference variable. Usage of java super Keyword :

  • super is used to refer immediate parent class instance variable.
  • super() is used to invoke immediate parent class constructor.
  • super is used to invoke immediate parent class method.

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Passing data from one php to another php program using php post.PHP’s $_POST variable is used to collect names and data from a form using the method POST. This variable is an array of variable names and their values that are sent by HTTP POST method. It basic purpose is to collect data from a form. When the $_ POST variable is used, all variables used are NOT displayed in the URL . Also, they have no restrictions to the length of the variables.



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Clock synchronization deals with understanding the temporal ordering of events produced by concurrent processes. It is useful for synchronizing senders and receivers of messages, controlling joint activity, and the serializing concurrent access to shared objects. The goal is that multiple unrelated processes running on different machines should be in agreement with and be able to make consistent decisions about the ordering of events in a system.For these kinds of events, we introduce the concept of a logical clock, one where the clock need not have any bearing on the time of day but rather be able to create event sequence numbers that can be used for comparing sets of events, such as a messages, within a distributed system

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HTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages).HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language,A markup language is a set of markup tags,HTML documents are described by HTML tags,Each HTML tag describes different document content .Styling HTML with CSS,CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets.CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media.CSS saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once. CSS can be added to HTML elements in 3 ways:Inline - by using the style attribute in HTML elements,Internal - by using a style tag element in the section, External - by using an external CSS file

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